|Dissertation||Evaluating the low-carbon city efficiency and analyzing the effects of urban development and spatial structure on carbon emissions低碳都市評估與低碳空間結構之分析|
|Abstract|| Excessive CO2 emission is one of the main causes of causing global warming and climate change. Therefore, low-carbon urban development is currently the core issue in sustainable development, and it is also the key to curb climate warming. The concept of the low-carbon city includes spatial dimension and non-spatial dimension. The former contains the issues of urban form, transportation system, and land use planning, the latter contains the issues of economy, energy consuming, and energy saving product. The spatial dimension plays the important role in the construction and development of the low-carbon city, but only the few studies focused on. Therefore, this paper takes the spatial dimension of the low-carbon city as the main scope, and discusses the topics of “research on low-carbon city indicator system”, “evaluating the low-carbon efficiency of city and analyzing its influential policies”, and “the effects of urban development and spatial structure on carbon emissions”.
In the topics of “research on low-carbon city indicator system”, this paper takes cities and counties of Taiwan as the empirical cases, and uses factor analysis to establish the appropriate low-carbon city indicator system for Taiwan. Furthermore, this paper evaluates the cities’/counties’ status of low-carbon developments by this low-carbon city indicator system. According to the empirical results, there are four evaluating aspects of the low-carbon city: 1) environmental quality and resource consumption, 2) economy and construction, 3) finance and resource recycling and 4) social status. Based on the comprehensive performance of the low-carbon city indicator system, Taipei City shows the best performance, whereas Changhua County shows the worst performance.
In the topics of “evaluating the low-carbon efficiency of the city and analyzing its influential policies”, this paper takes cities and counties of Taiwan as the empirical cases, and assesses low-carbon efficiency of the city by Bad Outputs Model. Moreover, this paper uses Tobit Model to analyze the influence of low-carbon policies on the low-carbon efficiency of the city. According to the result of Bad Outputs Model, Taipei City, Hsinchu City, Taitung County, and Hualien County are efficiency, and achieve the optimal scale level. Moreover, Kaohsiung County is the county in the most urgent need of improvement. Another result of Tobit model indicates that the industrial unit has the negative impact on the low-carbon efficiency of the city. Moreover, resource recovery, the total length of the urban bus route, the number of green buildings, and green area all have the positive impact on the low-carbon efficiency of the city.
In the topics of “the effects of urban development and spatial structure on carbon emissions”, this paper takes cities and counties of Taiwan as the empirical cases, and uses partial least squares method (PLS) to identify the impact of urban development and spatial structure on carbon emissions. The empirical results show that the mixed land use, urban intensity and density, and urban greening all have the negative impact on carbon emissions. Moreover, industrial function and urban transportation all have a positive impact on carbon emissions.
Finally, these results can be used as reference for future low-carbon urban planning and policy.
|Keywords||Low-Carbon City、Indicator System、Low-Carbon Efficiency、Low-Carbon Policies、Spatial Structure、Carbon Emissions|